Shevchenko Yuri Leonidovich
Academician of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Academician of the National Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine,M.D., Ph.D., Professor, Honored Doctor of the Russian Federation, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, Laureate of the State Prize of the Russian Federation, Colonel-General of the Medical Service, Doctor of Theology, Mitred Protopriest
He was born on April 7, 1947 in the city of Yakutsk. His labor path began immediately after graduation: during the year he served as a sailor on the ships of the Azov-Black Sea basin. In the years
Already from the first year he made his final choice — to devote a life to surgery and, especially, heart surgery. Being engaged in a scientific club of the clinic of hospital surgery, in his free time, Yu.L. Shevchenko worked as a hospital orderly in the operating room. This allowed him not only to attend the operations, but also to greedily watch the virtuoso operational technique of Academician I.S. Kolesnikov and Professor N.V. Putov. A significant influence on his formation as a surgeon-clinician was provided by Professor M.I. Lytkin.
After the successful completion of the Academy in 1974, he served as commander of the operational dressing platoon of a separate medical battalion. Since 1975 — at the Department of Hospital Surgery of the Academy: senior resident of the clinic
The scientific way of Yu.L. Shevchenko is distinguished by the extraordinary breadth of research. Remaining invariably true to the problems of cardiac surgery, he investigated the anomalies of lung development, pneumomycosis. These materials formed the basis of two chapters of the manual for physicians “Surgery of the lungs and pleura” (1988). Already in the early stages of professional development, scientific research Yu.L. Shevchenko were devoted to the study of the pathogenesis of acute myocardial insufficiency, its treatment, including with the help of ancillary blood circulation. He made a significant contribution to the surgical treatment of congenital heart defects: heart chambers septum defect plasty using an autopericardium was developed.
The talent of the scientist manifested itself in the ability to see the depth of the scientific problem in private matters. So, in a seemingly separate, surgical method of treating infective endocarditis — he saw a whole scientific direction — purulent-septic cardiosurgery, becoming its founder. Non-standard approach to the problem of intracardiac infection allowed him to develop a concept of the sanitizing effect of artificial circulation. This concept anticipated modern methods of extracorporeal correction of homeostatic disorders. Long-term experience of surgical treatment of patients with angiogenic sepsis with the localization of the septic focus in the heart convincingly showed that due to the program created by him, the artificial circulation from the risk factor of fatal complications turned into a powerful therapeutic factor that ensures the sanation of the whole organism. Yu.L. Shevchenko justified and implemented the principle of complex sanitation of the heart chambers. He for the first time in the experiment showed the safety and high efficiency of chemical sanitation of the chambers of the heart with a solution of pervomur ( hydrogen peroxide and formic acid). Flawlessly performed experiments allowed him to also use this antiseptic for the first time in patients. For physical sanation of foci of destruction in the heart (inaccessible to mechanical treatment) Yu.L. Shevchenko also used ultrasound for the first time. Under his leadership, comprehensive morphological and bacteriological studies with an analysis of the results of surgical treatment of patients with acquired heart diseases complicated by calcification of the valve made it possible to make an extremely important practical conclusion that calcium deposits in the heart are the focus of chronic intracardiac infection. In the experiment, the promise of using laser technologies for decalcification of intracardiac structures was demonstrated. Based on the study of the immediate and long-term results of surgical interventions in the surgical treatment of heart defects, the criteria for estimating body reserves have been developed, which allow predicting the outcomes of operations, and original mathematical models were created. A program for the rehabilitation and follow-up of patients who underwent infectious endocarditis was developed. It formed the basis for the chapter prepared by him in the manual for doctors “Medical Rehabilitation”.
Yu.L. Shevchenko has the world’s largest experience in surgical treatment of patients with infectious endocarditis (over 7 thousand clinical observations, including more than 3,5 thousand operated patients). In recent years, he received encouraging results with the use of silver impregnation of prosthetic heart valves to prevent the recurrence of intracardiac infection. The highest professionalism and deep theoretical knowledge allow Yu.L. Shevchenko to make non-standard decisions in the most difficult surgical situations. So, for the first time in the world, he successfully performed an open heart surgery without artificial blood circulation for the fragmentation of a gunshot wound to the heart in a military hospital. He also performed three heart transplants. The search for a reduction in surgical aggression against seriously ill patients led to the development and implementation of “sparing” access for open heart surgery in the conditions of artificial circulation in the wide clinical practice.
The originality of the scientific search of Yuri Leonidovich Shevchenko is manifested in the ability to detect contradictions in the generally accepted “axioms”. So, in all guidelines, infective endocarditis is indicated as an absolute contraindication for harvesting autologous transfusion media. Works done under the guidance of Yu.L. Shevchenko, convincingly showed the expediency of the exfusion of blood and its components in this category of patients in the preoperative period. Moreover, not only safety is noted, but also the therapeutic effect of this procedure. The obtained results allowed to revise the infusion-transfusion programs, to achieve the maximum rejection of the wide application of whole donor’s blood and its preparations. Many years of experience in transfusiologic support of heart operations in conditions of generalized infection was the basis of the monograph “Cardiac Surgery Transfusiology” (2000). Scope of scientific interests Yu.L. Shevchenko significantly expanded after he headed the chair and clinic of cardiovascular surgery named after academician P.A. Kupriyanov. Under his leadership, the problems of treating patients with ischemic heart disease were actively studied. He became one of the initiators of the control coronary angiography in the early postoperative period. Under his leadership, not only the relative safety of this invasive study has been proved, but its exceptional diagnostic value is shown. Uncompromising medical honesty and unconditional preference for the patient’s interests allowed Yu.L. Shevchenko not only resolutely break professional corporate framework, but also make this research an objective control of the effectiveness of myocardial revascularization. The possibilities of drug correction of intraoperative left ventricular diastolic function impairment were studied. Upon that, a wide range of pharmacological agents was studied: cholinesterase reactivators (dipiroxime), neuromodulators (taurine), actoprotectors (bemethyl). Electrophysiological studies of genesis of rhythm and conduction disorders in patients with cardiovascular pathology were introduced into clinical practice. A complex study of the effect of ozonized isotonic saline solutions on the homeostasis of cardiosurgical patients was carried out.
Yu.L. Shevchenko is rightfully considered one of the founders of Russian cardio-neurology. He was the first cardiosurgeon who draw attention to the need for comprehensive neurological support for open heart interventions. His many years of surgical experience and productive cooperation with leading neuropathologists formed the basis of monographs: “Topographic Mapping of the EEG in Neurological Practice” (1996), “Cardiac Surgery and Brain: Cerebral Hemodynamics and Neurological Outcomes of Heart Surgery” (1997) , “Cardioembolic stroke” (1997), conducted long-term studies had not only important theoretical significance, but also great practical. Thus, under the editorship of Yu.L. Shevchenko in 2004 published a manual for doctors “Antithrombotic therapy for ischemic stroke”.
Large-scale studies were conducted on the problems of vascular surgery. The features of surgical interventions in generalized forms of atherosclerotic lesions of arteries have been studied. A program of fundamental research in the field of phlebology was implemented. With the help of modern non-invasive methods, the regularities of the impairment of venous hemodynamics in varicose veins have been studied. Reconstructive operations on the main veins were developed. Under the editorship of Yu.L. Shevchenko in 1999 published a unique monograph “Errors, Dangers, Complications in Surgery of the veins”.
The problems of transplantology were actively investigated. At the same time, not only applied aspects of transplantation of organs and tissues were studied, but also theoretical questions of histocompatibility. Fundamentally new was the study of the possibilities of cell replacement therapy for myocardial pathology. Original scientific idea Yu.L. Shevchenko about the use of cultures of embryonic cardiomyocytes for correction of cardiac muscle function disorders was realized not only in the experiment, but also in clinical conditions. And the culture of endotheliocytes has been successfully applied for lining the inner surface of synthetic vascular prostheses in the experiment. Further experimental studies have shown high efficiency of embryonic endothelial cell culture and growth factors for stimulating angiogenesis in ischemic tissues.
Particular attention in the conducted under the leadership of Yu.L. Shevchenko studies were given to military medical aspects. At the same time, the problems of not only the clinical plan (direct rendering of specialized medical care to wounded and sick military personnel) were solved, but also the organization of assistance to the wounded at various stages in the conditions of the modern nature of combat operations.
Since 1992, Yu.L. Shevchenko is a representative of the Russian Federation in the International Committee of Military Medicine. He initiated the creation of the international movement “In Defense of Military Doctors”, the development of international military medical cooperation in the country and the successful implementation of major international programs (telemedicine technology center, exchange of students and young specialists, joint scientific publications). He became one of the editors of the fundamental scientific work “Public Health of Russia. XX century” (2001), in which for the first time the development of health care in Russia during the 20th century, including the most acute health problems related to the political and socio-economic processes of the last decade of the past century, was analyzed. He is the editor-in-chief of the journals “Clinical Medicine and Pathophysiology”, “Bulletin of the Interethnic Center for the Study of the Quality of Life”. Member of the editorial board of the journals “Bulletin of Surgery named after II. Grekov”, “Bulletin of the St. Petersburg Branch of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences”, “Military Medical Journal”, “Medical Academic Journal”, “International Reviews of the Military Medical Service”, “Rehabilitation Problems”, “Pathology of Blood Circulation and Cardiac Surgery”. He was the founder and first editor-in-chief of the Bulletin of the Russian Military Medical Academy.
Heading the Military Medical Academy, Yu.L. Shevchenko in educational work paid great attention to the high spirituality of future military doctors, the restoration of the best traditions of humanism and the sacrifice of Russian doctors. On his initiative and his author’s project, the world’s first memorial “To the doctors of the world who fell in wars” was opened on the territory of the Academy, and according to the decision of the mayoralty and the legislative assembly of St. Petersburg, the city square on which the monument is located was named “The Square of Military Medics”. On the territory of the former Naval Medical Academy, a memorial to the legendary “Stalingrad Course” was opened, most of whose graduates died heroically in the Great Patriotic War. At the suggestion of Yu.L. Shevchenko father, Bogdan — archpriest of the St. Nicholas Epiphany Cathedral (secular name Professor Sojko), joined the Academic Council of the Academy. Thanks to his pastoral enlightenment, this priest became a true spiritual mentor for many students of the Academy and its employees. Noting the exceptional merits of the Orthodox Church in charity, at the suggestion of Yu.L. Shevchenko Academic Council elected the Patriarch of Moscow and All Russia Alexy II as a honorary doctor of the Academy.
As the head of the scientific and pedagogical school (cardiosurgery) of the Presidential Fund for Support of Leading Scientific Schools in Russia and the scientific leader Yu.L. Shevchenko prepared for defense more than 80 doctoral and candidate dissertations. For several years he was chairman of the specialized dissertation council on surgery of the Military Medical Academy. Has published more than 400 scientific and educational-methodical works, including 17 monographs. It is noteworthy that the two-volume textbook “Specialty Surgery” under his editorial has survived two editions. Currently, a third, revised edition is being prepared.
July 5, 1999. By the Decree of the President of the Russian Federation Yu.L. Shevchenko is appointed Minister of Healthcare of Russia. Until December 2000, he simultaneously remained chief of the Military Medical Academy and headed the department and clinic of cardiovascular surgery.
Yu.L. Shevchenko is the author of the concept of Russia’s healthcare as a life support system, a factor of national security, the main priority of the state. Being a member of the Government of the Russian Federation, Yu.L. Shevchenko paid much attention to the development of the health care system in Russia’s regions, during numerous trips around the country, he personally operated on the heart and the main vessels, and sought the introduction of the most advanced technologies in the regions. In recent years, work has intensified to study the economic aspects of health and medical law. On his initiative, the Security Council of the Russian Federation in 1999 considered the issue “On legislative activities to address the national security problem in the field of protecting the health of citizens of the Russian Federation”. Yu.L. Shevchenko directly participated in the development of a number of federal targeted programs adopted by the Government of the Russian Federation on specific problems of preserving and promoting health, preventing diseases in the Russian population, including diabetes, tuberculosis, and HIV infection, and creating an effective system of vaccination of the population. The fact that Yuri Leonidovich had authority with the government circles of the country is eloquently evidenced by the fact that he was invariably in the position of Minister of Healthcare in three governments.
Since October 2000, Yu.L. Shevchenko — head of the department of faculty surgery of Sechenov Moscow Medical Academy.
In 2002 he organized the National Pirogov Medical Surgical Center of Ministry of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, and was elected as a president at a meeting of the enlarged members of the Center’s Academic Council. As Minister of Healthcare of the Russian Federation, he served as president on a voluntary basis. Since March 20, 2004, the president and chairman of the Academic Council of the Center is his main post.
Since January 2004 — chief surgeon of the Ministry of Healthcare and Social Development of the Russian Federation.
Yu.L. Shevchenko is a doctor of medical sciences, academician of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, academician and vice-president of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, academician of the Military Medical Academy, academician of the International Academy of Sciences on Ecology, Human and Nature Safety, Colonel-General of the Medical Service, Honored Scientist of the Russian Federation, Honored Doctor of the Russian Federation, Honored Doctor of Chuvashia, Honorary Citizen of the Republic of Sakha-Yakutia, laureate of the State Prize of the Russian Federation (2000). He is a member of the Coordinating Committee of the Scientific Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Physiological Sciences, a member of the Presidium of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, a member of the Bureau of Clinical Medicine of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, President of the Russian Association of Surgeons named after N.I. Pirogov, Chairman and founder of the International Award Committee of the International Award of Academician Boris Petrovsky, a gold medal to the “Outstanding Surgeon of the World”, a member of the presidium of the Russian Society of Doctors, a member of the board of the Russian Association of Cardiovascular Surgeons of the St. Petersburg Surgical Society named after NI. Pirogov, a member of the European Association of Cardiovascular Surgeons, the Association of Thoracic Surgeons of the United States. Laureate of the international award for surgeons Michael Debakey (1996) and the International award named after Rudolf Virkhov (1999). Awarded the Order of the US Department of Defense for his contribution to the development of military medicine (1998). Honorary Professor of the Russian Scientific Center for Surgery of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (1997), Honorary Doctor of the Military Medical Academy (1999), Honorary Doctor of the Research Institute of Experimental Medicine of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (2000), Honorary Professor of the St. Petersburg Pavlov State University (2005), Honorary Professor of the Research Institute of the Center for Hygiene named after Erisman (2002), Honorary Professor of the State Siberian Medical University (2000), an outstanding professor at the University of Federal Health Services in the USA (1996).
He was awarded the Order of the Russian Orthodox Church of the Holy Blessed Prince Daniel of Moscow III degree (1998), the International Order of Saint Constantine the Great (1998), the Peter the Great Gold Medal “For Merits in the Renaissance of Science and the Economy of Russia” of the International Academy of Nature Sciences and society (1995), gold medal of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences (1999), the award of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences named after N.A. Semashko (2002).
Honorary titles, awards and prizes
- Permanent Representative of Russia to the International Committee on Military Medicine
- Since 2000, the Permanent Representative of Russia to the World Health Organization
- Member of the Bureau of Clinical Medicine Russian Academy of Medical Sciences
- Academician and vice-president of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences, chairman of the department of fundamental medicine of the Russian Academy of Natural Sciences
- Academician of the S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy
- Honored Doctor of Chuvashia
- Laureate of the State Award of the Russian Federation (2000)
- Laureate of the International Award for Surgeons Michael DeBakey (1996)
- Laureate of the International Rudolf Virchow Prize (1999)
- Laureate of the Russian Academy of Medical Sciences named after N.A. Semashko (2002)
- Chairman of the International Award Committee of the “International Award of Academician Boris Petrovsky” — a gold medal “Outstanding Surgeon of the World”
- Member of the Coordination Committee of the Scientific Council of the Russian Academy of Sciences in Physiology
- Member of the Board of the Russian Association of Cardiovascular Surgeons
- Member of the European Association of Cardiovascular Surgeons
- Member of the Association of Thoracic Surgeons USA
- Professor at the University of Federal Health Services in the USA (1996)
- Honorary Professor of the Russian Scientific Center of Surgery, Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (1997)
- Honorary Doctor of the Military Medical Academy (1999)
- Honorary Doctor of the Research Institute of Experimental Medicine of Russian Academy of Medical Sciences (2000)
- Honorary Doctor of the Siberian State Medical University (2001)
- Honorary Professor of the Erisman Institute of Hygiene Center (2002)
- Honorary Professor of St. Petersburg State University (2004)
- Honorary Doctor of the St. Petersburg State Medical University named after academician I.P. Pavlov (2004)
- Honorary Professor of M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University (2008)
- Honorary citizen of the Republic of Sakha-Yakutia
- Permanent Representative of Russia to the International Committee on Military Medicine
- Since 2000, the Permanent Representative of Russia to the World Health Organization
- Order of the Russian Orthodox Church of the Holy Prince Daniel of Moscow II degree (1998)
- International Order of St. Constantine the Great (1998)
- Order of the US Department of Defense (1998)
- Gold Medal of Peter the Great of the International Academy of Sciences of Nature and Society (1995)